CONSELF | Industrial equipment
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Industrial equipment

High and unstable energy availability and costs are profoundly affecting industrial equipment sector, making necessary to largely improve energy efficiency, increasing machine performances or reducing consumption, depending on the application. In order to reach these goals, designers want to analyze and address the higher possible number of machine characteristics.

 

Machine efficiency improvement typically results in reduced carbon emissions, but other factors need to be taken into account like emissions of NOx, SOx, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Since, with increasing frequency, machines operate off-design burning multiple fuels, emissions targets are becoming more and more difficult to meet .

 

Obviously, efficiency and emissions targets have to be reached accordingly to machine integrity preservation. Reliability, durability and safety have to always be assured. In addition, machine operative conditions are asked to be extended and its working cycle intensified.

 

Industrial equipment category is very broad and includes a lot of different sectors, here a small list:

 

  • Turbomachinery (compressors, turbines, pumps)
  • Heat exchangers and cooling systems
  • Pipes and valves
  • Electronics components
  • Production plants machines and facilities

Heat is a fundamental parameter when dealing with design. There is great number of applications interested in heat transfer, to mention a few:

 

  • Heat flux applied to structures to avoid fusion
  • Confined space temperature control
  • Convective heat transfers between two fluids without phase switch
  • Thermal shock due to turbulent fluctuations in structures

Flow through pipes and fluids transport is very common in modern industry world. In order to regulate such systems, valves and pumps are always used. Controlling this type of tools is fundamental when designing and calculating new systems, in order to match customer needs and comfort requirements.

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is an essential tool to analyse turbomachineries such as pumps, turbines and compressors. CFD is generally applied right after the first machine design stage. This analysis allows to:

 

  • Compute in advance the behavior of a machine without the necessity of physically creating prototypes
  • Estimate the performances of a machine in terms of elaborated energy
  • Evaluate the distribution of fluid pressure and velocity fields
  • Find possible problems such as fluids detachments or creation of vortexes
  • Identify the causes of energy loss in order to optimize the machine

During last decade, studies related to utilization of renewable energies as wind and water have been growing in importance and have been appearing all around the world.

Different types of machines are typically used in this field, from solar collectors to wind turbines (HAWT and VAWT). Fluid Dynamics studies are often carried out since they allow to:

 

  • Evaluate machine performances and power production
  • Study and compute wind effects on wind turbine blade surface
  • Identify optimal shape of blades (chord length, twist..) in order to optimize performances
  • Analyse causes of performance loss such as tip effects on blade and formation of vortex